Quick Answer: What Is The Difference Between Germanium And Silicon?

What is the use of silicon and germanium?

Silicon-germanium is an important material that is used for the fabrication of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and strained Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS ) transistors for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS ) and BiCMOS (bipolar CMOS) technologies..

What makes silicon so special?

Silicon has the relatively unique property for an element in that it expands when it freezes like water. It has a high melting point of 1,400 degrees Celsius and boils at 2,800 degrees Celsius. The most abundant compound in the Earth’s crust is silicon dioxide.

What is silicon used for?

The element silicon is used extensively as a semiconductor in solid-state devices in the computer and microelectronics industries. For this, hyperpure silicon is needed. The silicon is selectively doped with tiny amounts of boron, gallium, phosphorus or arsenic to control its electrical properties.

What Colour is silicon?

dark grayPure silicon is a hard, dark gray solid with a metallic lustre and with a octahedral crystalline structure the same as that of the diamond form of carbon, to which silicon shows many chemical and physical similarities.

Why leakage current is more for germanium diode?

In Germanium and Silicon diodes, leakage current is only of few microamperes and nanoamperes, respectively. Germanium is much more susceptible to temperature than silicon. For this reason, mostly Silicon is used in modern semiconductor devices.

What is the zener breakdown voltage?

Breakdown voltage for commonly available Zener diodes can vary widely from 1.2 V to 200 V. For diodes that are lightly doped the breakdown is dominated by the avalanche effect rather than the Zener effect. Consequently, the breakdown voltage is higher (over 5.6 V) for these devices.

What is break over voltage?

[′brā‚kō·vər ‚vȯl·tij] (electronics) The positive anode voltage at which a silicon controlled rectifier switches into the conductive state with gate circuit open.

Which is better silicon or germanium?

The structure of Germanium crystals will be destroyed at higher temperature. However, Silicon crystals are not easily damaged by excess heat. Peak Inverse Voltage ratings of Silicon diodes are greater than Germanium diodes. Si is less expensive due to the greater abundance of element.

Why is silicon the best semiconductor?

First is that silicon is abundant in nature. Silicon have smaller leakage current so silicon is widely used for high temperature applications. Silicon is extremely inexpensive and relatively easy to process.As a result, it is unlikely that germanium will ever displace silicon as the dominant semiconductor material.

Why are silicon and germanium the most frequently used?

Each has four valence electrons, but germanium will at a given temperature have more free electrons and a higher conductivity. Silicon is by far the more widely used semiconductor for electronics, partly because it can be used at much higher temperatures than germanium.

Why is silicon used in transistors?

Silicon is used for electronic devices because it is an element with very special properties. … Silicon’s electrical properties can be modified through a process called doping. These characteristics make it an ideal material for making transistors that amplify electrical signals.

Is Silicon harmful to humans?

Health effects of silicon Silicon is non-toxic as the element and in all its natural forms, nameli silica and silicates, which are the most abundant. Elemental silicon is an inert material, which appears to lack the property of causing fibrosis in lung tissue.

Why are silicon and germanium used as semiconductors?

Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons equally at the same time.

Why is germanium not used for SCR?

Ability to withstand at high temperature: silicon crystals have capability to withstand at higher temperature compare to germanium crystals . So if leakage current is produced in SCR it heats up the device then silicon crystals can withstand but not germanium crystals.

What are uses of germanium?

The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps.

Where is the most silicon found on Earth?

ChinaSilicon is the second most common element in the Earth’s crust, although it is hard to find it in nature as a pure element. China is by far the world’s largest producer of silicon, including silicon content for ferrosilicon and silicon metal.

Why carbon is not used as a semiconductor?

Carbon is not used as semiconductor it has 4 valence electrons in it valence shell but the energy gap is very small it will conduct electricity even at room temperature ,the size of carbon is very small .

What is difference between silicon and germanium diode?

A Germanium Diode works in the same way but has a low forward voltage which results in it being a low power loss and an efficient diode. Silicon Diodes have a forward voltage of approximately 0.7 volts whereas Germanium Diodes have a forward voltage of approximately 0.3 volts.